Soil Characterization In Ex-Manganese Mining Land In North-Central Timor District, East Nusa Tenggara

  • Wilda Lumban Tobing Tobing Universitas Timor
  • Maria Magdalena Kolo Chemistry Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Timor, Indonesia
  • Deseriana Bria Agrotechnology Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Timor, Indonesia
  • Mahardika Putra Purba Department of Forestry, Politeknik Pertanian Negeri Kupang, Indonesia
  • Efieno Maria Paulo Soares Chemistry Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Timor, Indonesia
Keywords: soil physics, soil chemical,and mining.


Manganese (Mn) mining in North Central Timor results in open land conditions that can change soil qualities. The aim of this study was to determine physical characteristics and chemical properties of the soil in the ex-manganese mining areas. The study was performed from June – September 2021. Soil characterization was carried out at selected locations where manganese mining was carried out both traditionally and using technology. The soil characteristics measured were texture, water content, bulk density, mass density, porosity, organic matter content, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic C, total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), total potassium (K), and total Mn. The results showed that the physical characteristics of the soil on ex-Mn mining land from 5 villages in TTU, NTT are dominated by sand texture which results in low water content (3.39 - 9.46 %), soil porosity (14.96 - 59.31 %), and high bulk density (1.18 - 1.49 g cm-3). Characteristics of soil chemical properties showed low pH (< 7), organic matter (0.06 – 0.81%), organic C (0.03 – 0.22 %), total N contents (0.05 – 0.22%), and high total P (14.77 – 61.44 me 100 g-), K (66.66 – 71.18 me 100 g-), and Mn (18.802 – 24.055 ppm) contents. Land must be reclaimed Reclamation can be done by land management, top soil conservation, planting pioneer crops or cover crops.



Download data is not yet available.


Directorate General of Mineral and Goal. Impact Study of Manganese Mineral Downstream on Regional

Economy [Internet]. Jakarta; 2017. 127 p. Available from:

Seran R, Edi E. Geophysics and Geochemical Study of Manganese in Oetalus Village, TTU Regency. Indonesia

J Appl Phys [Internet]. 2021;11(1):40–50. Available from:

Xiang Y, Dong Y, Zhao S, Ye F, Wang Y, Zhou M, et al. Microbial Distribution and Diversity of Soil Around a

Manganese Mine Area. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2020;231(10).

Sukarman, Gani RA. Land of Former Tin Mining in Bangka and Belitung Islands, Indonesia and Its Suitability

for Agricultural Commodities. J Tanah dan Iklim. 2017;41(2).

International Journal Of Science, Technology & Management ISSN: 2722 - 4015

van Zwieten L, Kimber S, Morris S, Chan KY, Downie A, Rust J, et al. Effects of biochar from slow pyrolysis

of papermill waste on agronomic performance and soil fertility. Plant Soil. 2010;327(1).

Herjuna S. Utilization of Humic Materials and Fly Ash for Reclamation of Ex-Mining Land. thesis. 2011.

Patiung O, Sinukaban N, Tarigan SD, Darusman D. Effect of Age of Reclamation of Ex-Coal Mine Land on

Hydrological Function. Hidrolitan. 2011;2(2).

Siswanto B, Krisnayani BD, Utomo WH, Anderson C. WN. Rehabilitation of artisanal gold mining land in West

Lombok, Indonesia: Characterization of overburden and the surrounding soils. J Geol Min Res. 2012;

Munir M, Setyowati RDNS. Post-Mining Land Reclamation Studies in Jambi, Bangka, and South Kalimantan.

Klorofil. 2017;1(1).

Government Regulation No. 78 of 2010 concerning Reclamation and Post-mining. Peratur Pemerintah [Internet].

;23. Available from:

Iskandar, Suwardi, D.T. Suryaningtyas. Reclamation of ex-mining lands: Some problems related to soil

properties and their solutions Efthotd : 2012;(Juni):8. Available from:


Rachman A, Sutono S, Irawan I, Suastika IW. Soil Quality Indicators on Ex-Mining Land. J Sumberdaya

Lahan. 2020;11(1):1.

Saviour MN, Stalin P. Soil and Sand Mining: Causes, Consequences and Management. IOSR J Pharm.


Zulfahmi AR, Wan Zuhairi WY, Raihan MT, Sahibin AR, Wan Mohd Razi I, Tukimat L, et al. Influence of

Amang (Tin Tailing) on Geotechnical Properties of clay soil. Sains Malaysiana. 2012;41(3).

Schroeder PD, Daniels WL, Alley MM. Chemical and physical properties of reconstructed mineral sand mine

soils in Southeastern Virginia. Soil Sci. 2010;175(1):2–9.

Hillel D. Introduction to Soil Physics. Introduction to Soil Physics. 2013.

Blake GR, Hartge KH. Particle density. In: Klute A, editor. Particle Density Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1—

Physical and Mineralogical Methods. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Soil Science Society of America,

Inc.; 1986.

Haryati U. Soil Physical Characteristics of Upland Vegetable Cultivation Areas, Its Relationship with Land

Management Strategies. J Sumberd Lahan. 2014;8(2):14.

Allo MK. Condition of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Former Nickel Mines and Their Effect on

Trengguli and Mahoni Growth. J Hutan Trop. 2016;4(2).

Celik I, Gunal H, Budak M, Akpinar C. Effects of long-term organic and mineral fertilizers on bulk density and

penetration resistance in semi-arid Mediterranean soil conditions. Geoderma. 2010;160(2).

Saputra DD, Putrantyo AR, Kusuma Z. Relationship of Soil Organic Matter Content with Porosity Content

Weight and Infiltration Rate at Salak Plantation in Purwosari District, Pasuruan Regency. J Tanah dan Sumberd

Lahan. 2018;5(1).

Hamid I, Priatna S, Hermawan A. Characteristics of Some Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Ex-Tin

Mining Land. J Penelit Sains. 2017;19(1).

Lindsay WL. Chemical Equilibria in Soils. Clays Clay Miner. 1980;28(4).

Suda A, Makino T. Functional effects of manganese and iron oxides on the dynamics of trace elements in soils

with a special focus on arsenic and cadmium: A review. Geoderma. 2016;270.

Liu G, Wang J, Zhang E, Hou J, Liu X. Heavy metal speciation and risk assessment in dry land and paddy soils

near mining areas at Southern China. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2016;23(9):8709–20.

Rodríguez L, Ruiz E, Alonso-Azcárate J, Rincón J. Heavy metal distribution and chemical speciation in tailings

and soils around a Pb-Zn mine in Spain. J Environ Manage. 2009;90(2).

Sun Y, Li X, Ülo M, He Y, Jia Y, Ma Z, et al. Effect of reclamation time and land use on soil properties in

Changjiang River Estuary, China. Chinese Geogr Sci. 2011;21(4).

Amalia MP, Kumolontang WJN, Tamod ZE. Identification of Nutrition Content in Mine Land in Talawaan

Joniec J, Oleszczuk P, Jezierska-Tys S, Kwiatkowska E. Effect of reclamation treatments on microbial activity

and phytotoxicity of soil degraded by the sulphur mining industry. Environ Pollut. 2019;252.

Agus C, Pradipa E, Wulandari D, Supriyo HS, Saridi S, Herika DH. The Role of Revegetation on Soil

Restoration in Coal Mine Rehabilitation Land in the Tropics. Vol. 21, Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan. 2014.

Shrestha RK, Lal R. Changes in physical and chemical properties of soil after surface mining and reclamation.

International Journal Of Science, Technology & Management ISSN: 2722 - 4015

Geoderma. 2011;161(3–4).

Inonu I, Budianta D, Harun M, Wiralaga A. Amelioration of Organic Materials in Post Tin Mining Sand Tailings

Media For Rubber Seed Growth. J AGROTROPIKA. 2011;16 (1):7.

Pratiwi P, Santoso E, Turjaman M. Determination of the Dosage of Ameliorant for Soil Improvement of Quarz

Sand Tailings as a Media for Growing Forest Plants. J Penelit Hutan dan Konserv Alam. 2012;9(2).

Chaubey OP, Bohre P, Singhal PK. Impact of bio-reclamation of coal mine spoil on nutritional and microbial

characteristics - A case study. Int J Bio-Science Bio-Technology. 2012;4(3).

Siregar P, Fauzi, Supriadi. The Effect of Provision of Some Sources of Organic Materials and Incubation Period

on Some Chemical Aspects of Ultisol Soil Fertility. J Agroekoteknologi Univ Sumatera Utara. 2017;5(2):9.

Peku Jawang U. Assessment of Fertility Status and Management of Rainfed Rice Fields in Umbu Pabal Selatan

Village, Umbu Ratu Nggay Barat District. J Ilmu Pertan Indones. 2021;26(3).

Simanjuntak CM, Elfiati D, Delvian. The Impact of Mount Sinabung Eruption on Soil Chemical Properties in

Karo Regency. Peronema For Sci J. 2015;4(4).

Subagio H, Aqil M. Mapping of Superior Varieties of Corn Development in Dry Land in Dry Climate. In:

Seminar Nasional Serealia. 2013.

How to Cite
Tobing, W. L. T., Magdalena Kolo, M., Bria, D., Putra Purba, M., & Maria Paulo Soares, E. (2022). Soil Characterization In Ex-Manganese Mining Land In North-Central Timor District, East Nusa Tenggara. International Journal of Science, Technology & Management, 3(6), 1753-1762.