COVAC: A Blockchain-based COVID Testing and Vaccination Tracking System

  • Malak Sulaiman Alromaih Department of Cyber Security IT & Engineering College , Onizah private Collage Al Qassim, Saudi Arabia
  • Mohammed Mahdi Hassan Department of Computer Sciences, College of Computer, Qassim University, Al Qassim, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Block chain, COVID-19, Data integrity and immutability, Tracking system.


Blockchain is an emerging technology based on a distributed digital ledger system. Decentralized trust is one of the key factors behind the blockchain-based system. The transparency of such a system is better than a conventional centralized ledger system. By using a blockchain-based transaction system, any business organization can harness key benefits like data integrity, confidentiality, and anonymity without involving any third party in control of the transactions. Since the blockchain is used in numerous applications, the horizon is expanding at an unprecedented pace. It was found that tracking COVID vaccination in a transparent and accountable way is an emerging need, especially after the pandemic outbreak around the world. The blockchain platform is a good match for such applications. In this study, a blockchain-based COVID-19 testing and vaccination tracking system, called COVAC, has been designed to manage the COVID testing and vaccination process for local organizations. The “Prototype Software Development" approach was used to determine the system requirements according to the practical knowledge obtained through the vaccine monitoring and screening tests process and then communicated with local healthcare facilities to determine whether these requirements were satisfied. The blockchain-based implementation ensured the system transparency, integrity, and security of data on COVID-19 testing and vaccination


Download data is not yet available.


U. Johns Hopkins ArcGIS, "COVID-19 Dashboard," July 2021. [Online]. Available:

worldometers, "Wuhan Coronavirus Death Rate," February 2020. [Online]. Available:

hunter medical reaserch institution, "What are the long-term symptoms of COVID-19?," October 2020. [Online]. Available:

centers for disease control and prevention, "2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)," May 2021. [Online]. Available:

y. h. jin, l. cai, z. s. cheng, h. cheng, t. deng, y. p. fan, c. fang, d. huang, l. q. huang, q. huang, y. han, b. hu, f. hu, b. h. li, y. r. li, k. liang, l. k. lin, l. s. luo, j. ma, l. l. ma and z. y. peng, "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia," pp. 7(1), pp.1-23, 2020 , December.

C. f. D. C. a. Prevention, "CDC – Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)," December 2020. [Online].

H. Xu, L. Zhang, O. Onireti, Y. Fang, W. J. Buchanan and M. A. Imran, "Bebeeeptrace: Blockchain-enabled privacy-preserving contact tracing for the covid-19 pandemic and beyond.," IEEE Internet of Things Journal, pp. pp.3915-3929, September 2020.

M. Ahmed, i. elahi, m. abrar, u. aslam, i. khaled and m. a. habib, "Understanding blockchain: Platforms, applications and implementation challenges," In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Future Networks and Distributed, July 2019.

s. Nakamoto, "Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system.," 2008.

M. Conoscenti, A. Vetrò and J. C. D. Martin, "Blockchain for the Internet of Things: A systematic literature review.," in 13th International Conference of Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA), 2016.

S. Han, Z. Xu and L. Chen, "Jupiter: A blockchain platform for mobile devices.," in IEEE 34th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE), 2018.

M. Swan, "Blockchain: Blueprint for a new economy.," in O'Reilly, 2015.

L. Ismail, N. AlDhanhani, M. AlHammadi, H. Hameed and M. AlShamsi, "Towards a blockchain deployment at uae university: Performance evaluation and blockchain taxonomy," in the 2019 International Conference on Blockchain technology, 2019.

r. Anzalone, "IBM Blockchain Is Growing In The Food Industry During Covid-19," 2020, June.

A. Sharma, S. Bahl, A. K. Bagha, M. Javaid, D. K. Shukla and A. Haleem, "Blockchain technology and its applications to combat COVID-19 pandemic," 2020.

J. K. A. T. C. S. H. L. Y. J. T. T. A. Q. Jason Bay, "BlueTrace: A privacy-preserving protocol for community-driven contact tracing across borders.," Singapore, 2020,.

A. L. Phelana, "COVID-19 immunity passports and vaccination certificates: scientific, equitable, and legal challenges.," The Lancet, pp. pp.1595-1598, May 2020.

b. Fraser, "Chile plans controversial COVID-19 certificates.," The Lancet, p. p.1473, May 2020.

ImmuPass, " A simple and secure certificate of COVID‐19 immunity," March 2020. [Online]. Available:

G. Wood, "Ethereum: A secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger.," Ethereum project yellow paper, pp.1-32., 2014, June.

S. Rizal, H. R. Andrian, N. B. Kurniawan and Suhardi, "Secure Service Computing System Platform Based On Blockchain-A Systematic Literature Review.," in In 2019 International Conference on ICT for Smart Society (ICISS), 2019, November.

B. Yong, J. Shen, X. Liu, F. Li, HuamingChenc and Q. Zhoua, "An intelligent blockchain-based system for safe vaccine supply and supervision," International Journal of Information Management, p. pp.102024., June 2020.

S. Peng, X. Hu, J. Zhang, X. Xie, C. Long, Z. Tian and H. Jiang, "An efficient double-layer blockchain method for vaccine production supervision.," IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience., pp. , pp.579-587, July. 2020,.

M. M. Queiroz, D. Ivanov, A. Dolgui and S. F. Wamba, "Impacts of epidemic outbreaks on supply chains: mapping a research agenda amid the COVID-19 pandemic through a structured literature review.," Annals of operations research,, pp. pp.1-38., June 2020.

X. Hu, S. Peng, C. Long, H. Jiang and L. Wei, "vGuard: A Spatiotemporal Efficiency Supervision Method For Vaccine Production Based On Double-level Blockchain.," In 2019 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine(BIBM), pp. (pp. 1037-1042)., November 2019.

M. Eisenstadt, M. Ramachandran, N. Chowdhury, A. Third and J. Domingue, "COVID-19 antibody test/vaccination certification: there's an app for that.," in IEEE Open Journal of Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 2020, June.. [Online].

g. deverlopers, "Chrome DevTools," 2020.. [Online]. Available:

l. Alger, "Basic concepts of performance testing," 28 july 2016. [Online]. Available:

G. Steinfeld, "Hyperledger Fabric for the enterprise-privacy and security strategies," 2020, January..

How to Cite
Sulaiman Alromaih , M., & Mahdi Hassan , M. (2022). COVAC: A Blockchain-based COVID Testing and Vaccination Tracking System. International Journal of Science, Technology & Management, 3(3), 703-714.