Characterization, Phytochemical Screening of Phyllanthus emblica L. Fruit Nanoherbal and Determination of the Estrus Cycle of Female Rats

  • Nurul Suci Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
  • Masfria Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia and Nanomedicine Center of Innovation, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
  • Aminah Dalimunthe Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
  • Hafid Syahputra Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia


One of a plant that is thought to have quite high antioxidant activity is kemloko (Phyllanthus emblica L.). This plant is a material that is often used by the community as a traditional medicine. This plant in India has been used to treat cancer, diabetes, liver (liver), heart problems and anemia. This biological activity is thought to be caused by the presence of bioactive compounds from secondary metabolites contained therein, especially compounds from the phenolic and flavonoid groups. The short length of the estrus cycle of rats makes them ideal for investigation of changes occurring during the reproductive cycle. The estrus cycle lasts four days and is characterized as: proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus, which may be determined according to the cell types observed in the vaginal smear. Since the collection of vaginal secretion and the use of stained material generally takes some time, the aim of the present work was to provide researchers with some helpful considerations about the determination of the rat estrus cycle phases in a fast and practical way. This study began with macroscopic examination, examination of water content, examination of water-soluble extract levels, examination of ethanol-soluble extracts, examination of total ash content, and also an examination of acid-insoluble ash levels, phytochemical screening of Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit nanoherbal and determination of the estrus cycle of female rats. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the compound of Phyllanthus emblica L. Fruit nanoherbal contained a class of secondary metabolites of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids/triterpenoids, and glycosides. And the estrus cycle of female rats can be determined by observing changes in vaginal epithelial cells.


Download data is not yet available.


[1] BPOM RI. (2022). In Vivo Nonclinical Toxicity Test Guidelines. Jakarta: Drug and Food Research Center BPOM RI. Page: 25-29.
[2] Depkes RI. (1995). Materia Medika Indonesia. Jilid VI. Jakarta: Departemen Kesehatan RI. Page: 299-304, 321-325, 333-335.
[3] ElDesouky, S. K., Ryu, S. Y. and Kim, Y, K. (2008). A new cytotoxic acylated apigenin glucoside from Phyllanthus emblica L. Natural Product Research. 22(1):91-5.
[4] Goldman, J. M., Murr, A. S., and Cooper, R. L. (2007). Review Articel The rodent estrus cycle: Characterization of vaginal cytology and its utility in toxicological studies. Birth Defects Research. 80:84–97.
[5] Harborne, J.B. (1987). Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Methods of Analyzing Plants. ITB Press. Bandung. 70-71.
[6] Huang, D., Ou, B. and Prior, R.L. (2005). The Chemistry behind Antioxidant Capacity Assays, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53, 1841-1856.
[7] Liu, X., Zhao, M., Wang J., Yang, B., Jiang, Y. (2007). Antioxidant activity of Methanolic Extract of Emblica Fruit (Phyllanthus emblica L.) from Six Regions China. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. Vol. 21: 219-228.
[8] Lohmiller, J.J. and Swing, S.P. (2006). Reproduction and Breeding, The Laboratory Rat. 2nd Ed. United Kingdom: Elsevier Academic Press.
[9] Malole, M.B.M. dan Pramono C.S.U. (1989). The Use of Experimental Animals in the Laboratory. Bogor : PAU Pangan dan Gizi, IPB.
[10] MANDL, A. M., 1951, The phases of the estrus cycle in the adult white rat. Journal of Experimental Biology, 28: 576-584.
[11] Partodihardjo, S. (1992). Ilmu Reproduksi Hewan. Cetakan ke-3. Jakarta: Penerbit Mutiara Sumber Widia .
[12] World Health Organization. (2011). Quality Control Methods For Medicinal Plant Material. Switzherland: WHO. Hal.19-25.
[13] Zhang, L.Z., Zhao, W.H., Guo, Y.J., Tu, G.Z., Lin, S., dan Xin, L.G. (2003). Studies on Chemical Constituens in Fruits of Tibetian Medicine Phyllanthus emblica, China Journal Of Chinese Materia Medica. 28(10):940-943.
[14] Long, J. A. & Evans, H. M., 1922, The estrus cycle in the rat and its associated phenomena. Memories of University of California, 6: 1-148.
[15] Freeman, M. E., 1988, The ovarian cycle of the rat. In: E. Knobil & J. Neil (eds.), Physiology of reproduction. Raven Press Ltd., New York, pp. 1893-1928.
[16] Young, W. C., Boling, J. L. & Blandau, R., 1941, The vaginal smear picture, sexual receptivity and time of ovulation in the albino rat. Anat. Rec., 80: 37-45.
[17] Schwartz, N. B., 1964, Acute effects of ovariectomy on pituitary LH, uterine weight, and vaginal cornification. Am. J. Physiol., 107: 1251-1259.
[18] R. Yuniarti, ‘Skrining Fitokimia Dan Karakteristik Mutu Fisik Sediaan Obat Kumur Daun Kemangi (Ocimum Basilicum L.)’, In Prosiding Seminar Nasional Hasil Penelitian, 2022, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 252–255.
[19] N. W. Martiningsih and I. A. P. Suryanti, ‘Skrining Fitokimia dan Aktivitas Antijamur Minyak Atsiri Daun Kemangi (Ocimum sp.)’, in Seminar Nasional Riset Inovatif, 2017, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 631–636.
[20] R. A. Syahputra, A. Sutiani, P. M. Silitonga, Z. Rani, and A. Kudadiri, ‘Extraction And Phytochemical Screening of Ethanol Extract And Simplicia of Moringa Leaf (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) From Sidikalang, North Sumatera’, International Journal of Science, Technology & Management, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 2072–2076, 2021.
[21] S. R. Deshmukh, D. S. Ashrit, and B. A. Patil, ‘Extraction and evaluation of indole alkaloids from Rauwolfia serpentina for their antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities’, Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, vol. 4, no. Suppl 5, pp. 329–34, 2012.
[22] T. H. A. Alabri, A. H. S. Al Musalami, M. A. Hossain, A. M. Weli, and Q. Al-Riyami, ‘Comparative study of phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities of fresh and dry leaves crude plant extracts of Datura metel L’, Journal of King Saud University-Science, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 237–243, 2014.
[23] M. K. Amir et al., ‘Phytochemical analysis of selected medicinal plants of Margalla Hills and surroundings’, Journal of medicinal plants research, vol. 5, no. 25, pp. 6055–6060, 2011.
[24] Marcondes, F. K., Miguel, K., Melo, L. L. & Spadari-Bratfisch, R. C., 2001, Estrus cycle influences the response of female rats in the elevated plus-maze. Physiol. Behav., 74(4-5): 435-440.Sportnitz et al., 1999;
[25] Smith, M. S., Freman, M. E. & Neil, J. D., 1975, The control of progesterone secretion during the estrus cycle and early pseudopregnancy in the rat: prolactin, gonadotropin and steroid levels associated with rescue of the corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy. Endocrinology, 96: 219-226.
[26] Baker DEJ, Lindsey JR, & Weisbroth SH. 1979. The Laboratory Rat Vol I. Biology and and Deseases. Academic Press. hlm 435.
[27] Smith EJL & Mangkoewidjojo S. 1988. Pemeliharaan. Pembiakan dan Pengunaan Hewan Percobaan di Daerah Tropis. Universitas Indonesia Press. Jakarta.
[28] Tolihere MR. 1981. Inseminasi Buatan pada Ternak. Angkasa, Bandung.
[29] McDonald LE. 1980. Veterinary Endokrinologyand Reproduction. Lea and Febiger. Philadelphia. 28-228.
[30] Guyton AC. 1994. Fisiologi Kedokteran Bagian III. Ed ke-7. Tengadi KA dkk, Penerjemah. Penerbit buku kedokteran EGC. Jakarta. Terjemahan dari text Book of Medical physiology.
[31] H. M. Nasution, R. Yuniarti, Z. Rani, and A. Nursyafira, ‘Phytochemical Screening And Antibacterial Activity Test Of Ethanol Extract Of Jengkol Leaves (Archidendron Pauciflorum Benth.) IC Nielsen Against Staphylococcus Epidermidis And Propionibacterium Acnes’, International Journal of Science, Technology & Management, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 647–653, 2022.
How to Cite
Nurul Suci, Masfria, Aminah Dalimunthe, & Hafid Syahputra. (2023). Characterization, Phytochemical Screening of Phyllanthus emblica L. Fruit Nanoherbal and Determination of the Estrus Cycle of Female Rats . International Journal of Science, Technology & Management, 4(1), 191-196.